Tři švédské modely

Švédský ekonomický a sociální systém, někdy nazývaný „švédský model,“ se často líčí buď jako ideál, nebo jako abnormalita. Švédský model ale prošel zásadními proměnami. Obecně vzato tu vlastně od konce devatenáctého století byly už tři švédské „modely“.

První model trval asi od roku 1870 do 60. let 20. století. Během tohoto „liberálního“ období vláda v zásadě zajišťovala stabilní legislativu podporující trh, školství, zdravotnictví a infrastrukturu. Až do 60. let 20. století se jak celkové vládní výdaje (jako podíl HDP), tak distribuce příjmů podobaly tomu, co je obvyklé ve Spojených státech. Během tohoto staletého období se Švédsko ve smyslu HDP na hlavu vyvinulo z jedné z nejchudších západních zemí v třetí nejbohatší stát. Jinými slovy se Švédsko bohatou zemí stalo před vytvořením nesmírně štědrých opatření sociálního státu.

Druhá perioda trvala v letech 1960 až 1985. Režim volného obchodu z liberálního období byl během této éry zachován – ba několik kol globální liberalizace obchodu jej ještě prohloubilo –, ale dominantní linií bylo vytvoření štědrého sociálního státu. Ke konci 80. let 20. století dosahovaly celkové veřejné výdaje 60-65% HDP, oproti 30% v roce 1960. Navíc mezní míra zdanění u většiny zaměstnanců na plný úvazek vyletěla na 65-75%, v porovnání se 40% v roce 1960 (při započtení všech daní z domácností).

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