La nouvelle question juive de l’Europe

NEW YORK – En mars 1936, la Diète de Pologne (la chambre basse du Parlement) a presque réussi à interdire la shehita (l’abattage rituel conforme à la Loi juive). Seules des dispositions de la Constitution ont empêché son interdiction pure et simple. Si la majorité des députés avaient eu gain de cause, une grande partie des 3,2 millions de Juifs polonais auraient dû se passer de viande.

Il y a quelques jours, les fantômes du passé ont ressurgi à la Diète, lorsque les députés ont rejeté un projet de loi du gouvernement qui prévoyait de préserver la légalité de l’abattage rituel. Et une grande partie des partisans du projet de loi (dont le Premier ministre Donald Tusk) était en réalité plus soucieuse de défendre les emplois de la filière viande que de protéger les droits des minorités religieuses.

Ce vote a constitué une atteinte à la liberté religieuse et une violation de l’article 53 de la Constitution polonaise qui stipule que « Toute personne a droit à la liberté de conscience et de religion », précisant que « l'accomplissement des rites » est protégé. Ce vote a également représenté une gifle pour la communauté juive de Pologne qui fait partie du tissu social du pays depuis plus de mille ans, et qui, malgré l’Holocauste, a connu une renaissance remarquable ces deux dernières décennies. En fait, la Pologne, dotée d’une riche histoire juive et d’un héritage juif important, était considérée comme le terreau le plus fertile pour un rétablissement de la communauté juive à la suite de la chute du communisme.

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