Le syndrome des tabloïdes

Nous vivons dans un monde compliqué et tordu. Alors comment en comprendre ne serait-ce qu’une partie, comme disons, le gouvernement des Etats-Unis et sa politique économique, lorsque les sources qu’on nous présente comme fiables – journaux écrits et télévisés – depuis notre plus jeune âge, se délitent.

Par exemple, début février 2004, N. Gregory Mankiw, qui présidait à l’époque le Conseil des conseillers économiques ( Council of Economic Advisers ) du Président des Etats-Unis, s’est efforcé d’expliquer les phénomènes liés à « l’externalisation » à l’élite des journalistes politiques américains. Sa définition éprouvée de l’externalisation est très proche de la mienne – et d’ailleurs, de celle de tous les économistes néoclassiques et néolibéraux – et se résume, en substance, comme suit :

comme c’est le cas pour tout changement technologique augmentant le volume des échanges internationaux de biens et services, l’externalisation des tâches du secteur tertiaire favorise les uns et lèse les autres – mais favorise sûrement beaucoup plus qu’elle ne lèse. Les grands gagnants sont les travailleurs des pays pauvres qui obtiennent de meilleurs postes au sein d’entreprises désormais habilitées à exporter leurs services vers les pays riches. Les grands perdants sont ceux qui occupaient les postes du tertiaire, à présent externalisés : il leur faut trouver de nouveaux emplois, voire changer de secteur, et faire avec cette impression que leurs compétences sont dévalorisées.

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