Paul Lachine

La conciencia de la sostenibilidad

MILÁN – Los mercados y los incentivos capitalistas cuentan con grandes ventajas para fomentar la eficiencia, el crecimiento y la innovación económicos y, como argumentó convincentemente Ben Friedman, de la Universidad de Harvard, en su libro The Moral Consequences of Growth  (“Las consecuencias morales del Crecimiento”) de 2006, el crecimiento económico es bueno para las sociedades abiertas y democráticas, pero los mercados y los incentivos capitalistas presentan claras deficiencias a la hora de garantizar la estabilidad, la equidad y la sostenibilidad, que pueden afectar negativamente a la cohesión política y social.

Evidentemente, la de abandonar los sistemas capitalistas de mercado e implícitamente el crecimiento no es una opción en realidad. Colectivamente, no tenemos otra opción que la de adaptar el sistema a las condiciones mundiales y tecnológicas cambiantes para lograr la estabilidad, la equidad (tanto en  oportunidades como en resultados) y la sostenibilidad. De esos tres imperativos, la sostenibilidad puede ser el más complejo y arduo.

Para muchas personas, la sostenibilidad está relacionada con los recursos naturales finitos y el medio ambiente. En el próximo cuarto de siglo, el tamaño de la economía mundial probablemente se triplicará, gracias en gran medida al crecimiento en los países en desarrollo, a medida que vayan alcanzando ingresos propios de los países desarrollados y adoptando modalidades de consumo similares. Así, pues, existe un temor fundado de que los recursos naturales del planeta (en sentido amplio) y las capacidades de recuperación no resistan la presión.

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