Paul Lachine

可持续性观念

米兰—市场和资本主义激励在促进市场效率、增长和创新方面具有很大的优势。哈佛大学的本·弗里德曼(Ben Friedman)在其2006年的著作《增长的道德后果》(The Moral Consequences of Growth)中令人信服地指出,经济增长对开放的民主社会来说是大好事。但市场和资本主义激励在保证稳定、平等和可持续性方面有着显而易见的劣势,而这会对政治和社会凝聚力造成不利影响。

显然,抛弃市场-资本主义体系——因而也抛弃了增长——绝非现实选择。总的来说,我们别无选择,只能尽力调整市场-资本主义体系,使之适应变化的技术和全球条件,从而获得稳定、平等(就机会和结果等方面而言)和可持续性。在这三个目标中,可持续性大概是最复杂、最具挑战性的一个。

对许多人来说,可持续性伴随着有限的自然资源和环境。在未来25年中,全球经济规模可能会翻三倍,主要的增长动力来自发展中国家,它们将赶超发达国家的收入水平,并采用和发达国家相似的消费模式。因此,人们开始担心,地球的(广义)自然资源和自我修复能力将不堪重负。

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