Chris Van Es

Der Kampf um Syrien

KAIRO – Angesichts der zunehmenden Gewalt in Syrien wird die Lähmung der internationalen Gemeinschaft immer quälender. Immerhin tragen externe regionale Kräfte fast so viel zum dortigen Blutvergießen bei, wie das, was im Land selbst geschieht. Wenn sich Syrien von den negativen regionalpolitischen Einflüssen befreien könnte, gäbe es die Möglichkeit eines echten Wandels ohne andauernde Gewalt.

Syrien muss seine ethnische und regionale Vielfalt in den Griff bekommen und seine eigene Position im arabisch-israelischen Konflikt bestimmen. Dies aber ist schwierig, wenn Nachbarländer den heterogenen Charakter des Landes ausbeuten, um ihre eigenen hegemonischen Ziele durchzusetzen.

Immerhin liegt Syrien in der Mitte mächtiger und gegeneinander wirkender geopolitischer Kräfte. Im Osten lauert der Iran mit seiner antiamerikanischen und antiwestlichen Rhetorik und seinem großen regionalpolitischen Ehrgeiz. Im Süden sitzt Saudi-Arabien mit seiner langen Freundschaft zu den Vereinigten Staaten und seiner tiefsitzenden Feindschaft gegen die islamische Republik des Iran. Und nördlich befindet sich die Türkei, ein Europa zugewandtes, weitgehend laizistisches und demokratisches Land, das mehr Einfluss auf die arabische Welt anstrebt.

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