政教分离的斗争,历史和现实

法国即将庆祝其1905年11月9日的一部法律颁布100周年,这真有点奇怪的讽刺意味。该法律在混乱搅动各大城市的时刻宣布政教分离。然而,纵观法国历史,即使最近的暴乱和法国政教分离的实行之间没有直接联系,在教会和国家的角色上也总是怒火环绕。

教会和国家之间在政治掌控上的斗争可以追溯到中世纪,美男国王菲利普(Philippe le Bel)的法理学家们试图将皇权施加于法国的罗马天主教会之上。几个世纪以后,法国大革命将宗教自由遍播到法国各地。

随着拿破仑和教皇庇护七世(Pope Pius VII)在1801年达成协议,大革命时期狂暴的反教权主义让位于更具平衡性的政教关系。这一协议至今仍适用于全阿尔萨斯和洛林的部分地区适用。

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