多元文化主义的离奇死亡

有一种意识形态认为来自不同文化背景的人在同一个国家必须生活在不同的族群里,不应该彼此感兴趣,也不应该彼此批评。这种意识形态是错误的,也是行不通的。诚然,考虑得更周全的多元文化主义的倡导者们从未想象过一个文化族群能够或应该取代政治族群。他们相信只要每个人都遵纪守法,就没有必要让所有的公民都遵循单一的价值层次。

国内的多元文化主义理想和国外的文化相对主义遥相呼应,尤其在1970和1980年代更是如此。这在悄然不觉中还演进成为一种形式的道德种族主义,其观点是白种的欧洲人配得上自由民主但其他不同文化的民族则必须等待自由民主。非洲的独裁者可能做出天怒人怨的事,但他们却没有遭到众多欧洲知识分子的谴责,因为批评意味着文化傲慢。

我的出生地荷兰可能是在多元文化主义方面争论最为激烈的国家。两年半以前电影人Theo von Gogh被伊斯兰刺客谋杀的事件引发了关于这个国家长久以来的宽容文化和作为寻求避难者天堂的深刻辩论。

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