Tempête en Afrique subsaharienne

WASHINGTON DC – Alors que le monde se débat dans le plus grave bouleversement financier de la période d’après-guerre, les yeux se tournent vers les économies avancées et les marchés émergents le plus immédiatement affectés. Mais l’impact sur les pays pauvres est bien plus grave encore.

La faible croissance mondiale réduit les marchés d’exportation, et les cours de nombreuses matières premières sont en chute libre. Le resserrement du crédit dans les économies avancées et l’assombrissement des perspectives économiques dans les pays à faible revenus frappent les flux d’investissement. Et les versements des travailleurs installés à l’étranger, qui ont aujourd’hui supplanté l’aide en tant que plus grand flux financier vers les pays à faibles revenus, sont aussi en train de décliner.

L’Afrique subsaharienne dépend lourdement des exportations de matières premières, elle est donc tout particulièrement vulnérable à la crise mondiale. Beaucoup de pays africains ont mis à profit la décennie passée pour mettre en place des politiques économiques solides et durables qui ont débouché sur une croissance robuste et une inflation basse. Associées à l’allégement de la dette, ces politiques ont permis d’obtenir une dette publique réduite, des systèmes financiers relativement solides et, le plus important, une hausse des niveaux de vie.

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