Paul Lachine

Los orígenes de la conducta china

BEIJING – Hace seis décadas, el diplomático estadounidense George Kennan escribió un artículo, “Los orígenes de la conducta soviética”, que galvanizó la opinión norteamericana y mundial, que pronto se endureció hasta adoptar las posturas rígidas de la Guerra Fría. Hoy, dada la decisiva influencia de China en la economía global, y su creciente capacidad para proyectar poder militar, entender los orígenes de la conducta china se ha convertido en una cuestión central en las relaciones internacionales. De hecho, un mejor entendimiento de las motivaciones en materia de política exterior de China puede ayudar a impedir que las relaciones entre China y Estados Unidos se endurezcan al punto de convertirse en posturas rígidas y antagónicas.  

Desde 2008, las discusiones entre los académicos y los estrategas chinos sobre la naturaleza de la política exterior de su país se han centrado en dos cuestiones: sus cimientos ideológicos, y el atractivo y el prestigio internacional de China –su “poder blando”.

El pensamiento dominante, conocido como la Escuela China, insiste, junto con el gobierno, en el “marxismo con características chinas” como el principio base de la política exterior de China. Pero una escuela minoritaria sostiene que China debería, más bien, basarse en el pensamiento político tradicional del país, haciendo hincapié en el valor universal de la filosofía tradicional china. Mientras el People´s Daily, el periódico oficial del Partido Comunista chino, permanentemente ataca esa postura, el Partido mismo ha estado rehabilitando a Confucio, la figura central en el pensamiento tradicional chino, llegando al punto de erigirle una estatua en la Plaza Tiananmen.

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