Dean Rohrer

Le pouvoir de l'ONU

Staline déniait toute valeur à un pouvoir qui ne reposerait pas sur la force. "Combien le pape a-t-il de divisions ?", a-t-il demandé un jour. Aujourd'hui, beaucoup de soi-disant réalistes nient toute utilité à l'ONU qui serait impuissante et ils estiment qu'elle peut être ignorer. Ils se trompent.

Le pouvoir est la capacité à influer autrui de manière à obtenir le résultat que l'on veut. Le pouvoir quand il est à l'état brut repose sur l'argent et la coercition (la carotte et le bâton), sinon il fonctionne à travers la séduction et la coopération. Sans force propre et avec un budget très limité, l'ONU ne dispose comme seule puissance militaire que de celle que veulent bien lui concéder ses Etats membres. L'ONU a été créée en 1945 pour être au service de ses Etats membres et l'article 2.7 de sa charte protège leur souveraineté.

Après l'échec de la Ligue des Nations dans les années 1930, l'ONU a été conçue de telle sorte que les membres permanents du Conseil de sécurité agissent comme les gendarmes de la planète pour assurer la sécurité collective. Chaque fois que les grandes puissances ont été d'accord, l'ONU a pu disposer d'une puissance militaire importante, comme l'ont montré la guerre de Corée et la première guerre du Golfe. Mais ce sont des exceptions. Durant la Guerre froide, le Conseil était divisé. Ainsi qu'un expert l'a formulé, le veto des membres permanents sert de fusible : il vaut mieux que ce soit une lampe qui n'éclaire plus, plutôt que la maison qui brûle.

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