Dean Rohrer

联合国的软实力

斯大林一次在说到“软实力”的意义时,不屑一顾地问道“教皇有多少军队?”今天,许多自诩为现实主义者的人不屑地认为联合国毫无实力可言,并且根本就应该不把它当一回事。他们的想法是错误的。

实力是能够影响他人产生其所希望的结果的能力。硬实力通过给予好处和施加强迫手段(胡萝卜和大棒)来发挥作用;而软实力通过吸引和招安来发挥作用。鉴于它没有自己的军队并且只有相对而言很少的预算,联合国所能够拥有的硬实力只能是借助它的成员国得来的。联合国是1945年被创立用来服务其成员国的利益的,而其宪章的第2.7条明确强调保护其成员国的主权。

在二十世纪三十年代创立的国际联盟遭到失败后,联合国的设计是让安理会的常任理事国担当起执行集体安全的警察角色。当大国意见一致时,联合国就拥有强大的硬实力,正如在朝鲜战争和第一次海湾战争中所表现出的那样。但是这种情况却很少出现。在冷战期间,安理会内部出现了对立。正如一位专家所说的,常任理事国的否决权就像是电子系统中的一只保险丝盒:断电总比让房子烧毁要好。

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