Les Dimensions sociales de la mondialisation

La guerre contre le terrorisme et contre l'Irak a détourné une grande partie de l'attention de la communauté internationale de la question de la gestion de la mondialisation pour qu'elle profite à tous. Un nouveau rapport, rendu public par le Bureau international du travail sur les dimensions sociales de la mondialisation, nous rappelle combien le gouvernement Bush diverge avec le consensus international.

Le BIT est une organisation tripartite composée de représentants du monde du travail, du monde politique et du monde des affaires. La Commission, dont je fais partie, est présidée par les présidents en exercice de la Finlande et de la Tanzanie et se compose de 24 personnalités toutes issues de différentes nationalités, de différents groupes d'intérêt et d'horizons intellectuels différents, des membres aussi différents que le président du conseil d'administration de Toshiba ou le président de l'AFL-CIO. Et pourtant, ce groupe très hétérogène s'est montré capable de cristalliser le consensus mondial émergeant sur la mondialisation, qui, malgré son potentiel positif, n'a non seulement pas répondu à ce potentiel mais a également contribué à la détresse sociale.

Les dégâts viennent de la gestion de la mondialisation, en partie au niveau national, mais surtout au niveau de la communauté internationale, et de ses institutions : la Banque mondiale, l'Organisation mondiale du commerce et le FMI, qui sont toutes responsables de l'établissement des " règles du jeu ". La Commission est même parvenue à un consensus sur le nombre de mesures concrètes à prendre pour donner " visage humain " à la mondialisation - ou du mois atténuer certains de ses pires effets.

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