全球财政的沉睡火山

从各种迹象来看,欧盟宪法条约在法国和荷兰遭遇否决一事与其说是对欧洲的拒绝还不如说是对缺乏管理的全球化的不满。在包括欧洲的许多发达国家中,以“就业”为首的一系列社会关系的动荡对于越来越多的人来说正慢慢变得不可忍受。如果选民反对某种经济体系的基础,那么就不可能出现一个稳定的经济秩序——至少在民主国家不会。

二战之后资本主义之所以能够得到重建是因为它得力于三种必要管理形式的支持:社会保障,其至少在发达国家能够作为一种首选的稳定剂发挥作用;凯恩斯方案,能用以制止国内恶性循环的经济低迷;以及全球高薪政策,用以刺激总体消费,没有它们,资本主义的天才之作——大规模生产——就无法发挥作用。

但是始于1970年、围绕米尔顿·弗里德曼(Milton Friedman)推行的货币主义政策而进行的富有发达国家重组却结束了这一切。不久之后,美元脱离了金本位制。自那以后,国际金融体系就几乎一直承受着长期动荡。危机次数不断增加,一次比一次看来更糟糕。

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