Nacionalismo, locura y terrorismo

BOSTON – Si queremos entender lo que movió a los sospechosos de los atentados del maratón de Boston, Tamerlan y Yojar Tsarnaev, a hacerse terroristas, la respuesta casi con toda seguridad no radica en el Daguestán, donde esos hermanos vivieron antes de mudarse a los Estados Unidos, ni en las dos guerras reñidas en Chechenia en los veinte últimos años. En cambio, tal vez se pueda encontrar una clave para el comportamiento de los Tsarnaev en los acontecimientos sucedidos en Inglaterra hace 500 años.

En la Inglaterra del siglo XVI aparecieron varios fenómenos nuevos que revolucionaron la experiencia humana. Se redefinió la sociedad inglesa como “nación”, es decir, una comunidad soberana de miembros iguales. Con ello comenzó el nacionalismo y la movilidad social pasó a ser legítima.

Al mismo tiempo, se observó una variedad especial de enfermedad mental, que más adelante se denominaría esquizofrenia y trastornos depresivos: diferentes de una multitud de enfermedades mentales ya conocidas. Así nació un término nuevo, “locura”, la primera especialización médica (más adelante denominada “psiquiatría”) y una legislación especial relativa a los “locos”.

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