Nacionalismo, Loucura e Terrorismo

BOSTON – Se quisermos perceber o que motivou o acto de terrorismo de Tamerlan e Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, suspeitos do atentado na Maratona de Boston, decerto não deveremos procurar a resposta no Daguestão, onde os irmãos viviam antes de se mudarem para os Estados Unidos, nem nas duas guerras travadas na Chechénia nos últimos 20 anos. Ao contrário, a resposta para o comportamento dos Tsarnaev talvez possa ser encontrada nos desenvolvimentos verificados em Inglaterra, há 500 anos.

Uma série de fenómenos novos surgidos na Inglaterra do século XVI vieram revolucionar a experiência humana. A sociedade inglesa foi redefinida como uma "nação" - isto é, uma comunidade soberana formada por membros de direitos iguais. Foi assim que começou a era do nacionalismo e que a mobilidade social adquiriu legitimidade.

 Simultaneamente, observou-se pela primeira vez um determinado tipo de doenças mentais, que mais tarde viriam a ser denominadas esquizofrenia e perturbações depressivas e que eram difeentes de uma infinidade de doenças mentais já conhecidas. Deram origem a um novo termo, "loucura”; à primeira especialidade médica (que acabaria por ser designada "psiquiatria") e a legislação especial relativa ao "louco".

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