Nationalismus, Wahnsinn und Terrorismus

BOSTON – Wenn wir verstehen möchten, was die beiden Verdächtigen im Fall der Bombenanschläge auf den Boston-Marathon, Tamerlan und Dschochar Zarnajew, zu Terroristen werden ließ, finden wir die Antwort ziemlich sicher nicht in Dagestan, wo die Brüder  vor ihrem Umzug in die Vereinigten Staaten lebten, oder in den zwei Kriegen, die in den letzten 20 Jahren in Tschetschenien geführt wurden.  Vielmehr liegt der Schlüssel zum Verhalten der Zarnajews womöglich in den Entwicklungen in England vor 500 Jahren.

Dort traten im 16. Jahrhundert mehrere neue Phänomene zu Tage, die die menschliche Erfahrung revolutionierten. Die englische Gesellschaft wurde als „Nation“ neu definiert – also als eine souveräne Gemeinschaft gleichberechtigter Mitglieder. Damit begann das Zeitalter des Nationalismus und soziale Mobilität wurde legitim.

Gleichzeitig wurde erstmals eine spezielle Art einer psychischen Erkrankung beobachtet, die man später als Schizophrenie und depressive Störungen bezeichnen sollte – und die sich von einer Vielzahl zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits bekannter psychischer Erkrankungen unterschied. Mit dieser Erkrankung wurde ein neuer Begriff geprägt, nämlich der „Wahnsinn“. Überdies etablierten sich mit dem Aufkommen dieses Krankheitsbildes die erste medizinische Fachrichtung (später „Psychiatrie“) und eine spezielle Gesetzgebung für die „Wahnsinnigen“.

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