民族主义、疯狂行为和恐怖主义

波士顿——如果想了解波士顿马拉松赛爆炸案嫌疑人塔梅兰和焦哈尔·察尔纳耶夫的恐怖动机,肯定不能从两兄弟移民美国前居住的达吉斯坦、以及过去20年车臣爆发的那两场战争中寻找原因。相反,500年前英国的发展或许可以提供察尔纳耶夫所作所为的关键解释。

十六世纪英格兰的新气象彻底改变了人类体验。英国社会被重新定义为“国家”——也就是由平等成员构成的主权社会。这标志着国家主义时代的开始,社会地位的变动也变得合理合法。

在此时期首次发现了不同于已知精神病患的特殊精神病,也就是我们后来常说的精神分裂症和抑郁症。最终被命名为“精神病学”的首个医疗专业和“精神失常”等新名词应运而生,此外还有关于“精神失常”的特殊立法。

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