La revolución de los servicios

WASHINGTON, DC – China e India están avanzando a toda velocidad económicamente. Pero la manera en que crecen es absolutamente diferente. Mientras que China es un exportador extraordinario de productos manufacturados, India se ganó la reputación a nivel global de exportar servicios modernos. De hecho, India ha pasado por alto el sector industrial y dio un salto de la agricultura directamente a los servicios.

Las diferencias en los patrones de crecimiento de los dos países son asombrosas, y plantean interrogantes importantes para los economistas del desarrollo. ¿Los servicios pueden ser tan dinámicos como la industria? ¿Quiénes llegan más tarde al desarrollo sacan provecho de la creciente globalización del sector de servicios? ¿Los servicios pueden ser un motor de crecimiento sostenido, creación de empleo y reducción de la pobreza?

Vale la pena examinar algunos datos. El tamaño relativo del sector de servicios en India, dado el estado de desarrollo del país, es mucho mayor que en China. A pesar de ser una región de bajos ingresos, India y otros países del sur de Asia han adoptado los patrones de crecimiento de los países de ingresos medios y altos. Sus patrones de crecimiento se asemejan más estrechamente a los de Irlanda e Israel que a los de China y Malasia.

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