Die Dienstleistungsrevolution

WASHINGTON, DC – China und Indien sind wirtschaftlich auf dem Vormarsch. Allerdings unterscheidet sich die Art des Wachstums in den beiden Ländern dramatisch. Während sich China zum Großexporteur von Industriegütern entwickelte, macht sich Indien weltweit als Exporteur moderner Dienstleistungen einen Namen. Tatsächlich hat Indien die Stufe der industriellen Produktion übersprungen und den direkten Weg von der Landwirtschaft zu den Dienstleistungen genommen.

Die Unterschiede im Wachstumsmuster der beiden Länder sind bemerkenswert und werfen für Entwicklungsökonomen   wichtige Fragen auf. Kann sich der Dienstleistungssektor ebenso dynamisch entwickeln wie die Industrieproduktion? Können Entwicklungs-Nachzügler einen Nutzen aus der zunehmenden Globalisierung des Dienstleistungssektors ziehen? Können Dienstleistungen zum Motor nachhaltigen Wachstums, der Arbeitsplatzschaffung und Armutsreduktion werden?  

Es lohnt sich, einigen Fakten auf den Grund zu gehen. Der Dienstleistungssektor in Indien ist in Anbetracht des Entwicklungsstandes des Landes um vieles größer als in China. Obwohl Indien und andere südasiatische Länder eine Niedrigeinkommensregion bilden, weisen diese Länder die Wachstumsverläufe von Mittel- und Hocheinkommensländern auf. Ihr Wachstumsmuster ähnelt eher dem Irlands und Israels als dem Chinas und Malaysias.

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