Die Schurken des ökonomischen Patriotismus

Samuel Johnson nannte den Patriotismus „die letzte Zuflucht eines Schurken“. Wenn das stimmt, was sollten wir dann von dem derzeit aufkommenden ökonomischen Nationalismus halten, der manchmal beschönigend als „ökonomischer Patriotismus“ beschrieben wird?

In der Tat ist der ökonomische Nationalismus im Moment außerordentlich stark. Der starke allgemeine Widerstand gegen den Plan eines Unternehmens aus Dubai, Häfen in den Vereinigten Staaten zu übernehmen, hat die amerikanische Regierung schockiert. Polen erlebt derzeit eine heftige populistische Reaktion gegen die ausländische Inhaberschaft von Banken. Frankreich blockiert den Erwerb französischer Versorgungsbetriebe durch den italienischen Stromversorger Enel. Zusammen mit anderen europäischen Regierungen agitiert Frankreich ebenfalls gegen die Übernahme des in Luxemburg ansässigen Stahlunternehmens Arcelor durch ein niederländisches Unternehmen, das zum großen Teil von einem indischen Stahlmagnaten kontrolliert wird.

Die Verteidiger dieser unglücklichen grenzübergreifenden Übernahmen sorgen sich, dass ein dunkler Hauch der schwärzesten Augenblicke des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts in der Luft liegt. Ein empörter italienischer Minister warnte vor einer neuen Mobilisierung des populistischen Nationalismus wie in einem Szenario vom August 1914. Es gibt eine bessere Entsprechung in den 1930er Jahren: 1933, das Jahr, in dem Hitler an die Macht kam, verfasste der berühmteste Ökonom der Welt, John Maynard Keynes, einen Appell für die „nationale Autarkie“.

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