经济爱国主义的恶棍们

赛密欧·约翰逊将爱国主义称为“恶棍的最后避难所”。果真如此,那么我们又怎么看待今天日益高涨的经济国家主义,这种有时被委婉地称为“经济爱国主义”的现象呢?

的确,经济国家主义目前甚嚣尘上。民众对一家迪拜公司收购美国港口的计划的普遍强烈反对,着实让美国政府吃了一惊。本国银行易主外资也在波兰引发了民粹主义的强烈反弹。法国正在阻止意大利电力公司Enel对其公用事业的收购。法国还和其他欧洲国家政府一起积极阻挠一家荷兰公司对卢森堡的Arcelor钢铁公司的收购。而这家荷兰公司是由一位印度钢铁业巨子控股的。

这些命运多舛的跨国收购的捍卫者们在惴惴不安中嗅到了20世纪最险恶的历史重演的气息。一位出离愤怒的意大利部长警告说民粹国家主义在“1914年8月”的情景中蠢蠢欲动。而更好的类比则是来自于1930年代:在1933年,也就是希特勒掌权的那一年,当时世界上最负盛名的经济学家凯恩斯提出了“国家自足” (national self-sufficiency) 的理念。

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