Синдром шизофрении

Шизофренией страдает около 1% людей во всем мире. Первые симптомы обычно появляются в возрасте 20-30 лет, и многие люди так никогда и не излечиваются полностью от этого недуга. Что еще хуже, нам практически ничего не известно о причинах шизофрении.

С одной стороны, существует достаточно доказательств того, что шизофрения имеет биологическую основу, поскольку она проявляется в семьях, что указывает на генетический компонент. Также известно и о едва заметных аномалиях в структуре мозга. Лечение лекарственными препаратами, особенно теми, которые действуют на нейротрансмиттер допамин, может ослабить симптомы, но механизм этого эффекта неизвестен, поэтому могут иметь место нежелательные побочные эффекты, что и происходит.

С другой стороны, типичные симптомы шизофрении совершенно определенно относятся к области психического здоровья человека. Пациенты сообщают о галлюцинациях (ложных восприятиях) и иллюзиях (ложных предположениях). Пациент может слышать собственные мысли, произнесенные вслух, или слышать голоса, обсуждающие его. Пациенту может казаться, что какие-то силы контролируют его действия извне или внушают ему определенные мысли. Задача нейропсихолога показать, как нарушения в мозге могут привести к таким странным переживаниям.

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