Le renouveau de la Russie

La Russie de Vladimir Poutine doit son renouveau et son nouvel aplomb non pas à ses propres efforts, mais plutôt à une conjoncture internationale hautement prometteuse. Les prix du pétrole et du gaz atteignent des sommets, les Etats-Unis sont dépassés par de graves problèmes en Irak et au Moyen-Orient, et l’Occident est divisé sur la question russe.

L’administration de Poutine n’a pas hésité à tirer son épingle du jeu au sein d’un environnement si favorable. Pourtant, même si certaines manœuvres du Kremlin paraissent limpides et raisonnables, d’autres manquent cruellement de rationalité et de clairvoyance.

Par exemple, le désir de la Russie de s’approprier les marchés de distribution du gaz européen semble parfaitement logique et légitime, compte tenu des ressources énergétiques et de son important réseau de pipelines. De même, les actions entreprises pour étendre son influence aux pays riches en ressources énergétiques d’Asie centrale assurent sa réputation de grand fournisseur d’énergie. En s’affirmant comme grande puissance extérieure au Royaume de l’Occident, la Russie a donné un coup de fouet à l’Organisation de Coopération de Shanghai, qui compte la plupart des pays d’Asie centrale et la Chine. En effet, la Russie attache de plus en plus d’importance à ses relations avec cette dernière – véritable changement stratégique de sa politique étrangère, même si l’on ne peut clairement savoir dans quelle mesure elle souhaite se rapprocher de la Chine.

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