Las reglas de la reconstrucción

La reconstrucción del Líbano, tan cuidadosa y esforzadamente llevada a cabo en la década de los noventa, corre ahora el riesgo de ser deshecha. Pero el Líbano no está solo en esta situación: según las Naciones Unidas y varios estudios independientes, los países en transición de la guerra a la paz tienen una probabilidad en dos de caer de nuevo en conflicto. De hecho, en Timor Oriental, Irak, Afganistán, Kosovo y muchos otros países, la transición a la paz está en peligro.

Asimismo, hay tareas pendientes en muchos otros países que están en proceso de reconstrucción. La República Democrática del Congo (RDC), por ejemplo, acaba de celebrar sus primeras elecciones en cuarenta años. La estabilidad de la región de los Grandes Lagos de África, tal vez la zona más violenta de ese continente, dependerá del éxito del proceso de paz y de la reconstrucción.

Cuando las guerras terminan, los países comienzan una transición multidimensional. La violencia debe dar lugar a la seguridad de los ciudadanos; la ilegalidad y la exclusión política deben dar lugar al estado de derecho y a un gobierno participativo; la polarización étnica, religiosa o de clase o casta debe dar lugar a la reconciliación nacional y las economías destruidas por la guerra deben transformarse en economías de mercado operantes, que les permita a la gente común y corriente tener un sustento digno.

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