Die Regeln des Wiederaufbaus

Der Wiederaufbau des Libanons, der in den 90er Jahren so mühsam durchgeführt wurde, läuft derzeit Gefahr, wieder rückgängig gemacht zu werden. Doch steht der Libanon in dieser Hinsicht nicht alleine da: Laut UN und mehrerer unabhängiger Studien besteht für Länder, die sich in der Übergangsphase vom Krieg zum Frieden befinden, ein 50%iges Risiko, wieder in den Krieg abzugleiten. Tatsächlich scheint der Übergang zum Frieden in Osttimor, Irak, Afghanistan, Kosovo und vielen anderen Ländern zu scheitern.

Ebenso ist die Arbeit in vielen anderen Ländern, die sich im Wiederaufbau befinden, noch nicht abgeschlossen. Die Demokratische Republik Kongo (DRC) hat beispielsweise gerade erst ihre ersten Wahlen seit 40 Jahren abgehalten. Die Stabilität der Region der „Großen Seen“ in Afrika, vielleicht das gewalttätigste Gebiet des Kontinents, hängt vom Erfolg des dortigen Wandels und Wiederaufbaus ab.

Wenn Kriege enden, stehen die Länder vor einem vielschichtigen Übergang. Gewalt muss Platz machen für die Sicherheit der Bewohner; Gesetzlosigkeit und politische Ausgrenzung müssen Platz machen für Rechtsstaatlichkeit und eine partizipatorische Regierung; ethnische, religiöse oder Klassen-/Kastenpolarisierungen müssen einer nationalen Aussöhnung weichen; und ruinierte Kriegsökonomien müssen in funktionsfähige Marktwirtschaften umgewandelt werden, die es normalen Menschen ermöglichen, ihren eigenen Lebensunterhalt zu verdienen.

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