قواعد إعادة البناء

إن الجهود العظيمة التي بُـذِلَت من أجل إعادة بناء لبنان أثناء تسعينيات القرن العشرين، أصبحت الآن مهددة بالضياع. لكن لبنان ليست الدولة الوحيدة التي تواجه مثل هذه المأساة: فطبقاً لدراسات قامت بها الأمم المتحدة وعدد من المنظمات المستقلة، تبين أن الدول التي تمر بمرحلة انتقالية من الحرب إلى السلام تبلغ احتمالات انزلاقها من جديد إلى مستنقع الحرب حوالي 50%. والحقيقة أن التحول إلى السلام في دول مثل تيمور الشرقية، والعراق، وأفغانستان، وكوسوفو، والعديد من الدول الأخرى أصبح يشكل حلماً صعب المنال.

وعلى نحو مماثل، سنجد الكثير من الأمور الخطيرة المعلقة في العديد من الدول الأخرى التي تمر بمرحلة إعادة البناء. فمؤخراً شهدت جمهورية الكونغو الديمقراطية، على سبيل المثال، أول انتخابات تعقدها البلاد منذ أربعين عاماً. وفي منطقة البحيرات العظمى في أفريقيا، التي ربما تكون أكثر المناطق عنفاً في القارة، سوف يعتمد الاستقرار إلى حد كبير على نجاح عملية التحول وإعادة البناء.

حين تضع الحرب أوزارها يصبح لزاماً على البلدان التي دمرتها الحرب أن تخضع لعملية تحول متشعبة. فلابد وأن يحل الأمن محل العنف؛ ولابد وأن تحرص الحكومة على فرض حكم القانون والمشاركة الفاعلة، لا أن ترسخ عدم الشرعية والاستبعاد السياسي؛ ولابد وأن تكون المصالحة الوطنية بديلاً للصراع العرقي والديني والاستقطاب الطبقي والطائفي؛ ولابد وأن يتحول الاقتصاد الذي خربته الحرب إلى اقتصاد السوق القادر على تمكين المواطنين من دعم أنفسهم.

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