Причины отсталости исламского мира

Война в Ираке закончилась. Однако борьба за экономические преобразования в странах Ближнего Востока - единственную возможность предотвратить превращение целого поколения молодых безработных арабов и иранцев в религиозных фанатиков и экстремистов - только начинается.

Эта борьба не ограничивается стратегиями развития, а затрагивает самые истоки ислама. «Народ Ирана, - как, рассказывают, любил говорить покойный Аятолла Хомейни, - не совершал исламскую революцию для того, чтобы сбросить цены на арбузы». Согласно такой логике, капитализм и ислам несовместимы. Но так ли это?

Ответить на этот вопрос нам поможет история. Промышленная революция началась в центральной части Великобритании и в лесах Бельгии - районах богатых углем, водными каналами, по которым на баржах перевозили уголь, и умелыми мастерами, создававшими работавшие на угле паровые двигатели. Наличие угля, водных каналов и искусных мастеров послужило основой для создания, установки и использования автоматических прядильных машин, ткацких станков и железнодорожных локомотивов, представлявших собой первые образцы современного машиностроения.

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  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

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    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

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    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

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    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

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    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

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    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
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    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.