Der Weg zum Wiederaufbau nach einem Krieg

Für die fortschrittlichen Länder unserer Welt besteht eine zentrale Herausforderung darin, die wirtschaftliche und soziale Integration auszuweiten, ohne dabei die bereits bestehende wirtschaftliche Dynamik zu schwächen. Die Probleme kriegsverheerter Länder sind deutlich ausgeprägter, und ihre Möglichkeiten deutlich beschränkter. Tatsächlich haben sie es mit einer zweifachen Herausforderung zu tun: dynamische Volkswirtschaften zu schaffen und gleichzeitig die wirtschaftliche und soziale Integration zu fördern. Ohne beide dieser Elemente dürfte sich eine nationale Aussöhnung als unmöglich erweisen.

Von der sozialen Ausgrenzung innerhalb der Industrieländer gehen Kosten für die gesamte Gesellschaft aus, die die Politik durch wirksame und zielgerichtete Maßnahmen bekämpfen muss. Der Mangel an Arbeitsplätzen etwa führt viele – insbesondere junge Menschen – weg von der Arbeit hin zu Drogenabhängigkeit und Verbrechen. Die Gesellschaft muss anschließend die Kosten für die politischen Strategien zur Verbrechensverhütung und für die Rechtspflege tragen.

Ein flexibler Arbeitsmarkt, wie von vielen vorschlagen, fördert allein noch keine Integration. Wohlfahrtsprogramme in kriegsverheerten Ländern verstärken häufig die Arbeitslosigkeit, indem sie die Anreize zur Arbeitsaufnahme abbauen und eine Kultur der Abhängigkeit schaffen. Gesetzliche Mindestlöhne und Tarifverträge führen häufig dazu, dass die am wenigsten produktiven Arbeitnehmer für gesetzestreue Arbeitgeber unbezahlbar werden. Was diese Länder also brauchen, sind mehr Beschäftigungsmöglichkeiten und höhere Gehälter in der privaten Wirtschaft für diese Arbeitnehmer.

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