战后复苏之路

对于世界先进国家而言,一项关键的挑战就是在不削弱已有的经济动力的情况下扩大经济和社会包容。饱受战乱之苦的国家的问题更为突出,而其选择则更为有限。确实,这些国家面临双重挑战,也就是建立富有活力的经济并且与此同时促进经济和社会包容。没有这两项因素,民族和解就遥遥无期。

工业化国家的社会排斥在全社会造成很大的成本,决策者们必须采用有效而又具有针对性的手段处理这些问题。例如,缺少工作机会经常会让人们,特别是年轻人远离工作并依赖于毒品和犯罪。如此,社会就需要支付预防犯罪以及实施司法的成本。

正如许多人士所指出的那样,灵活的劳动力市场本身并不会促进包容。饱受战乱之苦的国家里的福利项目经常由于减少工作激励并且创造一种依赖文化而增加失业。最低工资法律以及劳动协议经常让守法的雇主无法支付最没有生产效率的工人。那么,这些国家所需要的是私营部门中给这些工人更多的就业机会和更高的工资。

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