Jak se zbavit bratříčkování v kapitalismu

BRATISLAVA: Za posledních deset let postkomunistické transformace byla politická reforma mnohdy zužována jen na otázku svobodných voleb. Ekonomická reforma byla přitom často zjednodušována jen (anebo přinejmenším především) na makroekonomickou stabilizaci prosazovanou v rámci takzvaného „washingtonského konsensu“, proti němuž se v současné době demonstruje v ulicích Washingtonu. Není překvapením, že výsledkem takového zjednodušujícího politického receptu byla nejednou neliberální demokracie a kapitalismus „po známostech“.

Transformace v mé zemi, na Slovensku, ale vlastně kdekoli jinde ve střední a východní Evropě, se nakonec ukázala jako mnohem složitější, komplexní a delší proces, než se původně očekávalo. Vyšlo najevo, že dědictví komunismu je o mnoho těžší břemeno, než si většina lidí, včetně odborníků, dokázala představit, a že toto břemeno tíží mnohem více a častěji hlavy občanů než zděděnou ekonomickou strukturu.

Zástupce ředitele Mezinárodního měnového fondu Stanley Fisher na nedávné konferenci v Moskvě opět kladl důraz na význam „washingtonského konsensu“, tj. na makroekonomickou stabilizaci, jejíž úspěch závisí na liberalizaci trhu a cen, směnitelnosti měny, přísné rozpočtové a měnové politice a na rychlé privatizaci. Tento konsensus je stále důležitý, ale sám o sobě není zárukou úspěchu. Stejně důležité je vybudovat fungující instituce.

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