Paul Lachine

عشر أسئلة عن التيسير الكمي

نيويورك ــ إن أغلب المراقبين ينظرون إلى السياسات النقدية غير التقليدية مثل التيسير الكمي باعتبارها ضرورة لتنشيط النمو في اقتصادات اليوم التي تعاني من الهزال. ولكن التساؤلات حول مدى فعالية التيسير الكمي والمخاطر المحيطة به بدأت تتكاثر أيضا. وبشكل خاص، هناك عشرة تكاليف محتملة ترتبط بمثل هذه السياسات وتستحق الانتباه.

فأولا، في حين قد تؤدي الاستجابة "النمساوية" البحتة (أي التقشف) لانفجار فقاعات الأصول والائتمان إلى الكساد، فإن سياسات التيسير الكمي التي تؤجل عملية تقليص الديون الخاصة والعامة الضرورية لفترة طويلة قد تسفر عن خلق جيش من الموتى الأحياء: مؤسسات مالية ميتة حية، وأسر وشركات ميتة حية، وفي نهاية المطاف حكومات ميتة حية. لذا، فعند مرحلة ما بين طرفي النقيض، النمساوي والكينزي، يصحب من الواجب التخلص التدريجي من التيسير الكمي.

وثانيا، قد يصبح تكرار جولات التيسير الكمي غير فعّال بمرور الوقت مع انسداد قنوات الانتقال إلى النشاط الاقتصادي الحقيقي. فقناة السندات لا تعمل عندما تكون عائدات السندات منخفضة بالفعل؛ ولا تعمل قناة الائتمان عندما تكنز البنوك السيولة وتنهار السرعة. والواقع أن هؤلاء القادرين على الاقتراض (الشركات العالية الجودة والأسر الغنية) لا يرغبون ولا يحتاجون إلى الاقتراض، في حين أن أولئك الذين يحتاجون إلى الاقتراض ــ الشركات عالية الاستدانة والأسر الفقيرة ــ لا يستطيعون نظراً للضائقة الائتمانية.

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