Riqueza soberana verde

PARIS – Al final de 2011, los activos gestionados de fondos soberanos ascendían a tres billones de dólares, gracias a que ese año las 237 inversiones directas ascendieron a 81.000 millones de dólares. Algunos expertos calculan incluso que los activos de fondos soberanos ascienden a seis billones de dólares, lo que significa que dichos activos, avatares del capitalismo de Estado, cuentan ahora con el doble de riqueza que los fondos de cobertura del mundo, los tótems de los excesos del capitalismo liberal.

El valor en aumento de los fondos soberanos está causando preocupación –y en algunos casos incitando a la formulación de críticas virulentas– en particular en los países receptores de la OCDE, donde muchos temen la redistribución del poder financiero, económico y político a los países en ascenso que tienen regímenes políticos muy diferentes de los suyos. En realidad, de los siete fondos soberanos que controlan más de las dos terceras partes de todos los activos de fondos soberanos, tres pertenecen a Asia (uno de China y dos de Singapur) y tres a Oriente Medio (Abu Dhabi, Kuwait y Qatar).

Los países europeos ocupan el primer lugar entre los receptores de inversiones de fondos soberanos, que representan el 40 por ciento del valor de las operaciones en 2011. Los Estados Unidos, donde ha habido mayor oposición a semejantes inversiones, representan menos del diez por ciento.

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