Les fonds souverains verts

PARIS – Fin 2011, les fonds souverains gérés s'élevaient à 3 billions de dollars d'après 237 investissements directs d'une valeur de 81 milliards de dollars cette année-là. Certains experts estiment même la valeur des actifs des fonds souverains à 6 billions de dollars. Cela signifie que les fonds souverains, les avatars du capitalisme d'Etat, sont désormais deux fois plus riches que les fonds de placement dans le monde, ces totems des excès du capitalisme libéral.

La montée en puissance des fonds souverains inquiète et dans certains cas essuie de virulentes critiques, en particulier dans les pays hôtes de l'OCDE où de nombreuses personnes craignent une redistribution de la puissance financière, économique et politique dans les pays émergents qui ont des régimes politiques très différents des leurs. En fait sur les sept fonds souverains qui détiennent plus de deux tiers des capitaux de tous les fonds souverains, trois sont en Asie (un en Chine et deux à Singapour) et trois appartiennent au Moyen-Orient (Abou Dabi, Koweït et Qatar).

Les pays européens se classent d'abord parmi les hôtes de fonds souverains, d'une valeur de plus de 40% de toute la valeur des marchés de 2011. Les Etats-Unis, où l'opposition à de tels investissements a été plus forte, en détiennent moins de 10%.

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