El riesgo de la centralización europea

FRÁNCFORT – Para muchos líderes europeos, la crisis de la eurozona demuestra la necesidad de construir “más Europa”, cuya meta final es lograr una unión política plenamente desarrollada. Si se tiene en cuenta la historia bélica y la división ideológica del continente, como también los desafíos actuales que plantea la globalización, una Europa pacífica, próspera y unida que ejerza influencia en el extranjero es, sin lugar a dudas, un objetivo deseable. Sin embargo, quedan aún desacuerdos de envergadura sobre la manera de alcanzar dicho objetivo.

Históricamente, se consideró que la unión monetaria es la ruta que lleva hacia la unión política. En la década de 1950, el economista francés Jacques Rueff, un asesor cercano a Charles de Gaulle, sostuvo que “L’Europe se fera par la monnaie, ou ne se fera pas” (Europa se hará a través de la moneda o no se hará). El presidente de Alemania Richard von Weizsäcker hizo eco de este punto de vista casi medio siglo más tarde, cuando aseveró que solamente a través de una moneda única los europeos lograrían tener una política exterior común. Más recientemente, la canciller alemana Angela Merkel afirmó que “si el euro fracasa, Europa fracasará”.

No obstante, la crisis que enfrenta “Europa”, no es tanto un asunto relacionado a la unión política, es más un asunto relativo a la Unión Económica y Monetaria de la Unión Europea. En todo caso, puede que los esfuerzos por mantener unida a la Unión Económica y Monetaria (UEM) nos hubiesen alejado de la meta de una política exterior común al volver a encender dentro de los Estados miembros (sin importar si dichos Estados dan o reciben ayuda financiera) rencores de tinte nacionalista, que esperábamos se hubieran extinguido hace ya mucho tiempo atrás.

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