Il rischio della centralizzazione europea

FRANCOFORTE – Per molti leader europei, la crisi dell’Eurozona dimostra la necessità di una “maggiore Europa”, dove lo scopo finale è quello di creare una vera e propria unione politica. Considerata la storia del continente fatta di guerre e divisioni ideologiche e le sfide odierne poste dalla globalizzazione, un’Europa pacifica, prospera ed unita che esercita influenza all’estero è sicuramente un obiettivo auspicabile. Restano però i grandi disaccordi su come raggiungere tale obiettivo.

Storicamente, l’unione monetaria veniva considerata come la strada verso l’unione politica. Negli anni Cinquanta, l’economista francese Jacques Rueff, un fedele consigliere di Charles de Gaulle, sosteneva che “L’Europe se fera par la monnaie, ou ne se fera pas” (L’Europa si farà attraverso la moneta o non si farà). Il presidente tedesco Richard von Weizsäcker ha confermato questa visione quasi cinquant’anni più tardi, dichiarando che solo tramite la moneta unica gli europei avrebbero raggiunto una politica estera comune. Più recentemente, la cancelliera tedesca Angela Merkel ha dichiarato che “se l’euro fallisce, fallisce l’Europa”.

Ma la crisi cui deve far fronte l’“Europa” non è tanto sull’unione politica quando sull’Unione monetaria ed economica europea (UEM). Anzi, gli sforzi profusi per tenere insieme l’UEM avrebbero potuto portarci oltre l’obiettivo di una politica estera comune riaccendendo tra gli Stati membri (a prescindere che diano o ricevano aiuti finanziari) il risentimento nazionalista che credevamo seppellito da tempo.

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