Riziko evropské centralizace

FRANKFURT – Pro mnoho evropských představitelů je krize v eurozóně důkazem, že je zapotřebí „více Evropy“, přičemž konečným cílem je vytvoření plnohodnotné politické unie. Vzhledem k historii válek a ideologických štěpení na kontinentu i vzhledem k dnešním výzvám v důsledku globalizace je mírumilovná, prosperující a sjednocená Evropa mající vliv v zahraničí dozajista žádoucím cílem. Přetrvávají však značné neshody v otázce, jak tohoto cíle dosáhnout.

Měnová unie byla historicky pokládána za cestu k unii politické. Francouzský ekonom Jacques Rueff, blízký poradce Charlese de Gaullea, v 50. letech tvrdil, že „L’Europe se fera par la monnaie, ou ne se fera pas“ („Evropa bude vytvořena skrz měnu, nebo nebude vytvořena vůbec.“) Německý prezident Richard von Weizsäcker se téměř o půl století později s tímto názorem ztotožnil, když deklaroval, že společné zahraniční politiky dosáhnou Evropané pouze prostřednictvím jednotné měny. A německá kancléřka Angela Merkelová nedávno prohlásila, že „ztroskotá-li euro, ztroskotá i Evropa“.

Krize, jíž dnes „Evropa“ čelí, se však týká spíše Evropské hospodářské a měnové unie (EMU) než unie politické. Snaha udržet EMU pohromadě nás dokonce možná vzdálila od cíle společné zahraniční politiky, neboť rozdmýchala uvnitř členských států (bez ohledu na to, zda finanční pomoc poskytují nebo přijímají) nacionalistické resentimenty, o nichž jsme doufali, že jsou dávno mrtvé.

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