El ascenso de los BRICs

Los ganadores del gran impulso de la globalización de los años 1990 fueron los estados pequeños como Nueva Zelanda, Chile, Dubai, Finlandia, Irlanda, las Repúblicas Bálticas, Eslovenia y Eslovaquia. Los tigres del este asiático que presionaron para ubicarse en el centro de la escena de la economía mundial eran unidades pequeñas y, en algunos casos, como Singapur, Taiwán o Hong Kong, ni siquiera eran tratados como estados. Incluso Corea del Sur, que en comparación es un gigante, era solamente medio país.

Este tipo de estados son vulnerables y el pasado está sembrado de globalizadores pequeños y exitosos que fueron derrotados por la política del poder: las ciudades-estados italianas del Renacimiento, la República Holandesa o, en el siglo XX, el Líbano y Kuwait. Los estados pequeños frecuentemente se convirtieron en las víctimas de vecinos más grandes pero más pobres envidiosos de su éxito y ansiosos por apoderarse de sus activos, pero olvidando al mismo tiempo que un ataque de este tipo, en realidad, destruye la fuente de riqueza y dinamismo.

En el mundo de la globalización pura, a los estados pequeños les va mejor, porque son más flexibles y pueden adaptarse más fácilmente a los mercados de rápida evolución. Los estados pequeños tienen mejores resultados a la hora de ajustar las políticas públicas, liberar los mercados laborales, establecer un marco sólido para la competencia y facilitar las fusiones y adquisiciones internacionales.

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