Der Aufstieg der BRIC-Länder

Die Gewinner des großen Globalisierungsschubs in den 1990er Jahren waren kleine Länder wie Neuseeland, Chile, Dubai, Finnland, Irland, die Baltischen Staaten, Slowenien und die Slowakei. Die ostasiatischen Tigerstaaten, die sich selbst in den Mittelpunkt der Weltwirtschaft rückten, waren kleine Einheiten und wurden in manchen Fällen – wie Singapur, Taiwan oder Hongkong –nicht einmal als Staaten behandelt. Sogar das im Vergleich riesige Südkorea war nur ein halbes Land.

Solche Staaten sind gefährdet und in der Geschichte gibt es zahllose Beispiele kleiner, erfolgreicher Globalisierer, die ein Opfer der Machtpolitik wurden. Man denke an die italienischen Stadtstaaten der Renaissance, die holländische Republik oder den Libanon und Kuwait im 20. Jahrhundert. Kleine Staaten wurden häufig zum Opfer ihrer großen und ärmeren Nachbarn, die den kleinen ihren Erfolg neideten und es darauf abgesehen hatten, deren Reichtum an sich zu reißen. Dabei übersahen die Großen jedoch, dass derartige Übergriffe die Quelle des Wohlstandes und der Dynamik zerstören.

In der Welt der reinen Globalisierung schneiden kleine Staaten am besten ab, weil sie flexibler sind und sich daher leichter an die sich rasch ändernden Märkte anpassen können. Kleinen Staaten gelingt es besser, Anpassungen im Bereich Public Policy vorzunehmen, ihre Arbeitsmärkte zu liberalisieren, ein solides Rahmenwerk für den Wettbewerb zu schaffen und grenzübergreifende Übernahmen und Firmenzusammenschlüsse zu erleichtern.

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