L’émergence des BRIC

Les gagnants de la grande vague de mondialisation des années 90 furent de petits États comme la Nouvelle-Zélande, le Chili, Dubaï, la Finlande, l’Irlande, les Républiques baltes, la Slovénie et la Slovaquie. Les « tigres » de l’Asie de l’Est qui se sont hissés sur le devant de la scène économique mondiale étaient des entités mineures, qui dans certains cas – Singapour, Taiwan et Hong Kong – ne sont pas considérés comme des États. Même la Coré8ee du Sud, un géant en comparaison, n’est que la moitié d’un pays.

Les nations de cette envergure sont vulnérables, et l’histoire abonde en exemples de petits acteurs sur la scène mondiale, qui malgré leur réussite ont succombé aux luttes de pouvoir : les cités États de la Renaissance en Italie, la République hollandaise, et au XXe siècle, le Liban et le Koweït. Les petits États sont souvent victimes de pays voisins plus grands, mais plus pauvres, et qui jaloux de leur succès font main basse sur leurs atouts en oubliant que c’est cet assujettissement même qui tarit la source de la richesse et du dynamisme.

Dans un monde globalisé, les États de moindre envergure s’en sortent généralement mieux, parce qu’ils sont plus flexibles et qu’ils s’adaptent plus rapidement à l’évolution des marchés. Ils sont plus à même d’ajuster leurs politiques sociales, de libéraliser leur marché du travail, d’établir un cadre solide pour la concurrence, et de faciliter les rachats et les fusions transfrontaliers d’entreprises.

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