La montée des puissances moyennes

Depuis les attaques terroristes du 11 septembre 2001 aux États-Unis, l’environnement sécuritaire a clairement montré les limites des Nations Unies, ou même des États-Unis en tant que seule superpuissance militaire, à maintenir la sécurité dans le monde. Pourtant, des puissances moyennes de même sensibilité pourraient compléter les manques des Nations Unies ou des États-Unis, si elles avaient assez d’influence pour stabiliser l’environnement sécuritaire mondial.

Le Japon, l’Australie, l’Allemagne ou le Canada pourraient être de telles puissances. En tant que pays libres et démocratiques, ils partagent les mêmes valeurs et, en outre, ce sont des puissances non-nucléaires sans siège permanent au Conseil de Sécurité des Nations Unies. Ce sont tous des alliés de longue date des États-Unis. En fait, durant ces dernières années, ces pays ont déjà eu de nombreuses occasions de démontrer leur capacité et leur volonté de participer à la sécurité internationale si l’on faisait appel à eux. Ils reconnaissent tous également que la stabilité mondiale sert directement leurs propres intérêts.

Toutefois, des différences subtiles entre ces pays peuvent influencer leur coordination ou coopération bilatérale avec les Nations Unies ou les États-Unis. En conséquence, il leur faut mutuellement compléter leurs avantages, caractéristiques et intérêts respectifs afin d’optimiser leur rôle dans la défense de la sécurité internationale.

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