Paul Lachine

El ascenso y la caída del putinismo

MOSCÚ – ¿Cómo fue que sucedió el “putinismo”, esa mezcla característicamente rusa de política autoritaria y economía dirigista? Y ahora que sucedió, ¿cómo pueden los rusos trascenderlo, para materializar los derechos y las libertades que les prometen en la constitución del país?

Una sociedad civil rusa activa, que pareció surgir de la nada en la Unión Soviética de Mijail Gorbachov de 1989-1990 tras la larga hibernación soviética, retrocedió demasiado rápido. La asombrosa dificultad de la supervivencia cotidiana después del colapso de la URSS obligó a la mayoría de los rusos a concentrarse en las necesidades más urgentes de sus familias. Y cundió la apatía cívica.

De modo que Vladimir Putin llegó al poder en un momento muy conveniente para cualquier líder –cuando la gente está inactiva-. De manera astuta, Putin luego amarró esta apatía a los primeros indicios de crecimiento económico post-soviético para sellar un nuevo contrato social: mejoraría los niveles de vida a cambio de que los rusos aceptaran importantes restricciones a sus derechos y libertades constitucionales.

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