Paul Lachine

صعود وسقوط البوتينية

موسكو ـ تُرى كيف نشأت "البوتينية" ـ ذلك المزيج الروسي المتميز من السياسات الاستبدادية والاقتصاد الموجه؟ والآن كيف يتمكن الروس من تجاوز البوتينية من أجل الحصول على الحقوق والحريات التي وعدهم بها دستور بلادهم؟

إن المجتمع المدني الروسي النشط، الذي بدا وكأنه نشأ من العدم في الاتحاد السوفيتي تحت زعامة ميخائيل جورباتشوف أثناء الفترة 1989-1990 وبعد فترة سبات سوفييتي طويلة، انحسر بسرعة بالغة. إن المصاعب المهولة المرتبطة بالحياة اليومية في أعقاب انهيار الاتحاد السوفييتي أوقعت أغلب الروس في فخ التركيز على الاحتياجات الأكثر إلحاحاً لأسرهم، الأمر الذي أدى إلى انتشار حالة من عدم المبالاة بالمجتمع المدني.

لذا فقد وصل فلاديمير بوتن إلى السلطة في لحظة مواتية للغاية لأي حاكم ـ في وقت يتسم بالهدوء الشعبي. وبخبث عمل بوتن على ربط هذه الحالة من عدم المبالاة بأول براعم النمو الاقتصادي في مرحلة ما بعد العصر السوفييتي من أجل إبرام عقد اجتماعي جديد: يعمل بموجبه بوتن على رفع مستويات المعيشة في نظير قبول عامة الشعب الروسي للقيود الشديدة على حقوقهم وحرياتهم الدستورية.

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