Die verratene Revolution

KIEW – Vom verschneiten Kiew aus habe ich die erfolgreichen Revolutionen in Kairo und Tunis mit Freude und Bewunderung verfolgt. Die Ägypter und Tunesier sind zu Recht stolz auf ihren Wunsch, despotische Regierungen friedlich zu stürzen. Aber als jemand, der einst eine friedliche Revolution anführte, hoffe ich, dass dieser Stolz durch Pragmatismus abgemildert wird, weil ein Regimewechsel nur der erste Schritt in Richtung einer Demokratie auf Grundlage des Rechtsstaates ist. Wie es ja in meinem Land, der Ukraine, gerade offenkundig wird, können demokratische Revolutionen verraten und umgekehrt werden, wenn sich die Euphorie der Revolution legt und die Normalität zurückkehrt.

Die erste ukrainische Lehre für Ägypten und Tunesien ist, dass Wahlen noch keine Demokratie machen. Denn was passiert, wenn die Feinde der Freiheit Wahlen dazu benutzen, ihre antidemokratische Agenda zu etablieren? Was, wenn Elemente des alten Regimes oder die Kader militanter Minderheiten nur vorgeben, sich an demokratische Normen zu halten, um die neue Demokratie für ihre Zwecke einzuspannen?

In der Ukraine von heute sind das keine abstrakten Fragen. Sechs Jahre nach unserer orangen Revolution ist in meinem Land nicht nur die Demokratie bedroht, auch die Rechtsstaatlichkeit wird systematisch pervertiert und unsere nationale Unabhängigkeit verschachert. Als Teil der Einigung, die zu einem friedlichen Ende der ukrainischen Revolution führte, wurde ein gemischt präsidial-parlamentarisches Regierungssystem eingeführt. Dieses wird nun ausgehöhlt, um die gesamte politische Macht in den Händen eines angeblich demokratisch gewählten Präsidenten zu versammeln.

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