英才的反叛

 巴黎--拯救金融体系是经济史上的一个怪异时刻,因为它的最大受益者是那些从市场的非理性繁荣中获得最多利益的人--金融公司的大佬们。然而,在危机到来之前,财富的再分配(以及使之成为可能的税收与社会保障费用)却被认为是实现经济效益的最大障碍。的确,团结的价值已经屈从于个人的“功绩”,而后者则是以人的收入多少来衡量的。

矛盾的是,这种情况的形成可以被归咎于两个积极的因素:民主的循序渐进使个人获得自由但同时也使人陷入孤立;福利体系的发展分担风险,并使得个人更加自主。有了这种孤立和自主,人们更加愿意相信,不论是福是祸,他们自己对自身的命运负责。 

 而难题也正在于此。个人自由和自主的获得恰恰是因为民主辩论后的集体决策,特别是那些确保每个人有机会享有教育、医疗等公共商品的决策。虽然社会连结感还在一定程度上存在,但它已经变得如此抽象,以至于那些得到命运眷顾的人极少感恩社会。他们相信自己所取得的地位完全是个人功绩使然而不是集体努力--国家资助的学校、大学等等--使他们能发挥自身的潜力。

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