Возвращение туберкулёза

Поколения врачей, политиков и официальных лиц системы здравоохранения старались победить туберкулёз. Но после лет успеха туберкулёз возвращается. Увеличение случаев заболевания туберкулёзом в развитых странах с 1992 года первоначально приписывалось ВИЧ. Однако со временем появились и другие факторы, стоящие за увеличением числа случаев заболевания туберкулёзом, такие как иммиграция и особый вид лекарственно-устойчивого туберкулёза.

Всемирная организация здравоохранения разработала стратегию борьбы с возвращением туберкулёза, включающую в себя стандартизированную терапию, которая определяет подходящие лекарства, дозы и временные рамки терапии. К сожалению, устойчивый к большинству лекарств туберкулёз (MDR-TB или полирезистентный ), т.е. любой вирус туберкулёза, устойчивый к традиционным методам лечения изониацидом и рифампицином, представляет собой серьёзную угрозу: из-за того, что стандартные методы лечения менее эффективны при его лечении, его распространение продолжается.

Более того, любой вирус туберкулёза, к которому было применено неадекватное лечение, становится устойчивым к большинству лекарств, поэтому ошибка в лечении может быть как причиной, так и последствием MDR-TB . Это подтверждает необходимость строгой гигиены, чтобы лечить сегодня туберкулёз, а также более сложной стратегии контроля заболевания, которая позволила бы вылечить как можно больше людей, предотвратила бы приобретение устойчивости к лекарствам и снизила бы уровень распространения инфекции. ВОЗ рекомендует внедрить так называемую стратегию DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Strategy - терапия под непосредственным наблюдением) и установила диагностический порог не менее 70% от всех случаев инфицирования и порог лечения в 85%.

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