Die Rückkehr der Radikalen im Iran

Sechsundzwanzig Jahre nach der Islamischen Revolution – gerade als der Westen dachte, der Iran würde sich beruhigen und pragmatischer werden – scheint das Regime von Mahmud Ahmadinedschad erneut einen Ruck zurück in Richtung Radikalismus gemacht zu haben. Vielleicht jedoch kann ein Blick auf frühere Revolutionen verständlich machen, was derzeit im Iran passiert, denn für die jüngsten Ereignisse gibt es klare historische Präzedenzfälle.

Viele Revolutionen durchlaufen nach einer radikalen Frühphase zunächst eine „Ruhephase“, bis der Radikalismus dann 15-25 Jahre später wieder auflebt. Der Grund hierfür ist, dass diese erste Ruhephase häufig von Korruption und einer Abwendung von den revolutionären Zielen geprägt ist. Dies vermittelt den Idealisten das Gefühl, dass die Revolution vom Weg abgekommen sei. Im Glauben, dass der einzige Weg zur Stärkung ihres Landes ein verstärktes Bemühen zur Umsetzung der revolutionären Ideale sei, streben diese Idealisten danach, eine „Rückkehr der Radikalen“ zu inspirieren, was einen starken Konflikt mit ihren pragmatischeren Mitrevolutionären auslöst.

Die mexikanische Revolution von 1910 begann als Herausforderung an den Diktator Porfirio Díaz, die Bauernaufstände und Arbeiterrevolten auslöste. Die radikale Phase der Revolution schien 1920 mit der Machtergreifung durch General Alvaro Obregón zu Ende zu gehen; dieser beschränkte das Ausmaß der Bodenreformen und bemühte sich um eine Aussöhnung mit den Vereinigten Staaten. Während der nächsten 14 Jahre herrschten Obregón und der mit ihm verbündete General Plutarco Calles über Mexiko.

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