宗教的回归?

布达佩斯——有种老掉牙的对比认为,美国更宗教,而欧洲更世俗。但不久前这种过时的对比在某些方面实际已经遭到了颠覆:上一届美国总统选举中宗教几乎没有占据任何分量,但在不少欧洲国家却突然爆发了与宗教有关的大规模争论,这表明信仰问题重又回到了欧洲政治的核心。

以法国总统尼古拉·萨科奇为例。他曾在不同场合多次提出他的国家需要重新思考传统上对国家和宗教的严格分割制度,也就是所谓的“政教分离”。按照这位离过两次婚、公开声称自己是“文化天主教徒”的总统的说法,法国应该建立一种“积极的世俗主义”。它与 消极的政教分离 形成鲜明的对照,按照萨科奇的说法,后者能做的只是“谴责和排斥”,而 积极的政教分离 却可以实现“对话”,并承认宗教的社会效益。

2007年底在罗马一次备受批评的讲话中,萨科奇承认了法国的基督教根基,称法国是“教堂最年长的女儿”;他还在对沙特阿拉伯的访问中赞扬伊斯兰教。如今他想给以信仰为基础的组织颁发国家津贴,这样一项政策提案让许多世俗主义的批评家气愤不已。

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