Le populisme post-communiste

L'effondrement du communisme en Europe centrale et en Europe de l'Est il y a 15 ans a apporté des améliorations considérables en termes de démocratie. Mais en 2006, après plus d'une décennie d'efforts pour être reconnu par l'Occident, le vide moral et politique laissé par le communisme apparaît au grand jour. Est-il possible de trouver un nouvel équilibre entre la culture démocratique et les courants sous-jacents liés à l'Histoire politique et à la culture de la région ?

En Pologne par exemple, le mélange dominant de catholicisme et de nationalisme a rendu la société particulièrement résistante au communisme (de manière évidente en comparaison avec culture égalitaire et socio-démocratique de Tchécoslovaquie avant la guerre). Mais ces anticorps anticommunistes se sont également retournés contre l'acceptation universelle de la démocratie libérale par les Polonais.

Les populistes de droite en Pologne et ceux de gauche en Slovaquie sont maintenant alliés à des partis nationalistes extrémistes pour gouverner. En Hongrie, le principal parti d'opposition, le Fidesz , organise des manifestations en face du Parlement pour obtenir la démission du gouvernement, bien qu'il ait remporté un vote de confiance. En République tchèque, un gouvernement minoritaire de droite n'a pas obtenu la confiance du Parlement après six mois de dispute. L'entrée de la Bulgarie dans l'Union européenne a été marquée par une course à la présidence entre un ancien communiste (le vainqueur qui prétend aimer l'UE) et un proto-fasciste (qui dit détester les Turcs, les Tziganes et les juifs).

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