后共产主义的回归

15年前共产主义在中东欧地区的崩溃带来了巨大而且积极的民主变革。但到了2006年,在10年试图让西方接受的艰苦努力之后,共产主义留下的道德和政治真空终于暴露无余。人们能够在民主精神和东欧地区的政治历史和文化下涌动的逆流间找到新的平衡吗?

譬如在波兰,天主教和民族主义导致社会特别排斥共产主义(这肯定与战前捷克斯洛伐克的平等主义和社会民主主义精神背道而驰)。但这种反共产主义抗体同样也阻碍了大多数波兰人接受自由民主制度。

事实上,波兰右翼和斯洛伐克左翼民粹主义者如今都在政府中与极端民族主义者结为联盟。在匈牙利,即使政府赢得了信任投票,主要反对派青年民主党(FIDESZ)仍然在议会门前组织示威活动,要求政府辞职。在捷克共和国,右翼少数派政府在长达6个月的争论后也未能在议会的信任投票中获胜。在保加利亚,一位前共产党人(宣称热爱欧盟的获胜者)和一位法西斯支持者(宣称自己痛恨土耳其人、吉普赛人犹太人)参加了总统选举,不久以后,保加利亚就加入了欧盟。

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